Entry 7 from paragraph to essay


FROM PARAGRAPH TO ESSAY

Paragraph by listing:

 This kind of paragraph are non- fictional texts.the are useful to LIST in an organised way and to make the paragraph smoothy (not a shopping list).
 paragraph sentence starts with the TOPIC INTRIDUCTION – WICH IS IN PASSIVE VOICE- and establishes the topic discussion.
                            sentence is the TOPIC SENTENCE  which defines or delimits the topic narrowly. Its second part of the sentence will be the new info  which leads the readerto a better understanding . BOTH are open paragraphs.
 2º ( 3º & 4º) paragraphs: then comes the paragraph that develop the main idea (developer) with SUPPORTING  examples which are listed with  the help of CONNECTORS. MODULATOR or TRANSITION SENTENCES are used b/ diferents sets of ideas ( while, however). Repetition, parallel constructions, synonyms, ant/  are aids that add chesion to the text.
Finally a TERMINATOR sentence leads the text to its conclution.



*Paragrpah  by example:

TOPIC SENTENCE  : divided in old and new info , which this is the second part of the sentence. UMBRELLA TERM are used.
list of EXAMPLES .
last, CONCLUSION.

 The text sholud be cohesive , the capacity of the text to be united. Micro level forces its unity through synonyms, hyperonyming, opposition. Macro level focuses on the topic sentence .

Essay developing by examples.

Model: topic
            Example paragraph
            Restate paragraph.
Key words: “you” , furthermore, at all times, for example, On the possitive side,  On the other hand, however. besides, finally.




*Paragraph by comparison.

First: choose  the similarities or differences. It is much easier to discuss ONLY the similarities.
Then ,organize the essay. Finally, what main point (thesis) might be in the essay about the two people/things being compared. This  point should help shape the rest of what is being said. this main point should be clearly expressed.
1º an example is related to a subject A) alternates with an example  related to another subject B)  . 2º all examples of subject A are listed together , folowed by exales of subject B.
 Additional type sentences are used .  the topic s. States clearly thr basis of comparison. Transition s. Moves from one point of view to another.

*Paragraph by  Contrast   
This paragraph compare DISSIMILARITIES. The first method  alternates examples of “A”  with “B” . the contrast may be in the same sentence, or in the consecutive ones.anotehr possibility is present all subjects “A” examples all together , then the same with subjuect “B”.
 Key words: however, on the other hand, in contrast.

*Paragraph by definition
This describes , explains or defines unfamiliar terms by relatin with knwn terms. It may use the method of contrast, comparison and SYNTHESIS. It shows by using comparison sentences , for eg.,  that show that an unknownis the same as some that we already know. It's important to limit your term before you start defining it. For example, you could write forever on the term "love." To limit it, you would write about either "romantic love," "platonic love," or "first love." Use understandable facts, examples, or anecdotes. (1º paragraph; definitin of the term.) Finally, a sentence that sum up the features of the term being defined.
Steps: 
  1. Tell readers what term is being defined.
  2. Present clear and basic information.
  3. Use facts, examples, or anecdotes that readers will understand.
  4.  The thesis statement usually identifies the term being defined and provides a brief, basic definition.
-Define by function. Explain what something does or how something works.
 - Define by structure. Tell how something is organized or put together.
-  Define by analysis. Compare the term to other members of its class and then illustrate the differences. These differences are special characteristics that make the term stand out. For example, compare a Siberian husky to other dogs, such as lap dogs, mutts, or sporting dogs.
 - Define by what the term does not mean. This distinction can sometimes clarify a definition and help a reader to better understand it.

*Paragraph  by clasification
Finding Categories is a key step in writing a classification essay. It must not  put them in random piles. The thesis statement usually includes the topic and how it is classified. Sometimes the categories are named.
(topic)...(how classified)...(category) (category) (category)
Ex: Tourists in Hawaii can enjoy three water sports: snorkeling, surfing, and sailing.
1.                  Determine the categories. Be thorough; don't leave out a critical category. For example, if you say water sports of Hawaii include snorkeling and sailing, but leave out surfing, your essay would be incomplete because surfing is Hawaii's most famous water sport. On the other hand, don't include too many categories, which will blur your classification. For example, if your topic is sports shoes, and your organizing principle is activity, you wouldn't include high heels with running and bowling shoes.
  1. Classify by a single principle. Once you have categories, make sure that they fit into the same organizing principle. The organizing principle is how you sort the groups. Do not allow a different principle to pop up unexpectedly. For example, if your unifying principle is "tourist-oriented" water sports, don't use another unifying principle, such as "native water sports," which would have different categories: pearl diving, outrigger, or canoe racing.
  2. Support equally each category with examples. In general, you should write the same quantity, i.e., give the same number of examples, for each category. The most important category, usually reserved for last, might require more elaboration.


                                                               Samples




Paragraph by definition


Beauty Definition.
Beauty is a simple word that has several definitions depending on the individual and the subject at handIt is an abstract word that is mostly used to describe something that brings happiness or pleases an individual. It may be used to describe many characteristics in person but the word beauty will stand for all the great values possessed by an individual or substance. This essay is, therefore, going to give a better and precise definition of the word beauty and what it symbolizes when put in use.
Analysis

1)  The  TOPIC SENTENCE is the  first sentence of the paragraph and it tells the  readers what term is being defined; in this case it is beauty. It also clarifies that there are more than one definition, so the reader expect to read several definitions, otherwise, the introdution would not be suitable.
     2) The folowing two sentences open the scope and explains what has been already told in the topic sentence. There are , as we was supposed to be, two definitions of the word.

1)      Conclution:  this is a TERMINATOR and explain in other words what has been written in the topic sentence.




 Paragraph by classification

Analysis

      1) The first sentence is the INTRODUCTION SENTENCE and stands out what the text is  going to be about . It mentions the two  types of depression .

2)      The second sentence i sthe TOPIC SENTENCE . This clarifies , by narrowing the scope, which is one of the main classification. In the following paragraph  the other type of depression is mentioned and explained.

3)      The body of the paragraph details the characteristcs of the most imposrtant depression. A contrast is being mentioned through the espression “ on the other hand”.

There is no conclution, at least , there is not a sentence that conclude the paragraph.

The followin paragraph will detail another type of depression.

Paragraph by example
by Miao Wang (Vanessa)
Copied with permission of the author

A further aspect to be considered is the need for good products. In my opinion, when a supermarket is stocked with goods, it should check the sell-by date of goods, and make sure all of them are fresh and have good quality. What is more, a successful supermarket has many different kinds of goods, and its prices are balanced. For instance, TESCO, which is a successful supermarket in Britain, has balanced prices. In the supermarket, items have different prices on one price tag: one referring to TESCO, the others from other supermarkets. When customers buy items, they can thus compare prices, in order to choose the best ones to buy. Moreover, a supermarket should update goods quickly in order to make sure they are fresh.
 file:///C:/Documents%20and%20Settings/Administrador/Escritorio/listing%20eg.htm

Analysis:

1)      topic introduction.  First person is being used and, as it should be, it is written  in the introduction. This means that the author is taking part of the essay by giving his opinion, which will be suppored soon.

2)      topic sentence. the issue of the essay is clarified. The second part of the sentences, THE  RHEME,which refers to the balanced prices, is the one that leads the reader to a better understanding.

3)      the main idea is supported through examples.


4)      Repetition – an aid to stand out the main topic.

Linkers of addition : “moreover” and “what is more”, “ a faurther aspect.”.Those linkers reasure the main topic

5)      Terminator :It provides a brief conclusion to the writing. The conclution only needs to be brief.



Paragraph by listing

  
The first aspect to be discussed is that of good service. Firstly, the correct attitude in attending to customers is very important. Attendants should always smile to customers, no matter whether the customer is right or wrong. When customers ask where they can find things, attendants should not only show the way, but also they should go and get things for the customers. Secondly, a supermarket needs to provide good after-sales service. For example, when customers buy big and heavy items, they cannot carry them by themselves; the supermarket should thus help them take the items to the right places free of charge. If the place is too far away, the supermarket could ask the customer to contribute some money.


Analysis:

1)-The topic sentence describes very briefly what  the paragraph  is going to be  about. It makes clear that a list would come in the following sentence.  Obviously, this list is not alike  to those of the supermarkets´;although it is, in fact, an enumeration of aspects of a good service, it is more fluent.

2)- “ Firstly” and  “ secondly” show explicitly the enumeration of aspects of a good service.

3)-  In order to  make the explanation more evident, an  example is given.





 Essay by comparison

 Both Wilfred Owen and Robert Frost use techniques such as careful diction, imagery and sentence structure to convey their agendas. They both outline how a single even can end the childhood of a young man prematurely and what effect it has on both of their lives. The two poems stimulate a sense of pity within us and furthermore, Owen stimulates a sense of outrage that men are allowed to join the army below the set age. Both poets use graphic description and effective diction as a means to stimulate a sense of horror within the reader.




 Analysis

 The thesis statement is clearly defined at the very beging of the fisrt paragraph of the essay. There ir not a topic introduction, it just starts straight away with the topic sentence.( yellow reference).

  The comparisons, similaties, are marked with green colour. The words that make it evident are “both” , which is the most repeated, and “the two” .Those terms let the reader be aware of the fact  they will come across with just two items and not more.
 As it is supposed to be, the comparisons refer to those items  named in the first sentence.

The last sentence exhibits the terminator. It is the conclution.





Paragraph by contrast


Analysis

1)      The introduction sentence is the first  and the second one: “ Cognitive developement(...) and their world. ” These sentences pave the way to the  following one: the 2) TOPIC SENTENCE. This is the third  sentence which demonstrates that the essay will focus on two different perspectives of the same theory (cognitive developement) from the point of view of Vygotsky and Piaget.


3) Contrast is shown through the word WHEREAS  ( 5º line ) which is repetaed in 8º line. Firstly, the Piaget theory is presented and after it, Vigotsky´s approach contrasts the perspective of Piaget. “Whereas” is the most suitable word to introduce a contrast between two things which are in other way similar.

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